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Writing and Citing

Citation examples

Citation Example APA (7th):


Citation Example MLA (7):

Image of a citation example in MLA

Cite it Right: The Four Levels of a Database Hierarchy

Why is this important anyhow?

Generic image of a flowchartWhenever you cite an article - especially one obtained electronically - you are asked to provide specific information regarding where the information was retrieved from. If you put the wrong information in the wrong spot, the Professor will not be able to verify your sources which could impact your grade on either the paper or the bibliography!


There are 4 levels associated with database articles,
from the top level down:

Image of the ProQuest logoAggregator (or vendor, if you prefer): this is the company that holds the databases. Examples of larger aggregators include EbscoHost and ProQuest. There is always only ONE aggregator for the purposes of citing the source. Note: Content from multiple aggregators can live in 'discovery' systems like Molloy's JETfind.

Image of Ebsco Academic Search Premier database logoDatabases live inside products like Ebsco and the larger aggregators can contain 25 databases or more. Examples of databases within Ebsco would include ERIC, Academic Search Premier, PsycARTICLES and Business Source Complete to name a few. Certain aggregators (e.g. LexisNexis,JSTOR) contain only one database; in these cases they are both the database and the aggregator. More on Databases...


Image of a stack of journals entitled "Access Online Journals"

Journals live inside of databases and there could be hundreds of them - they could be periodicals, newspapers, magazines or trade journals. Examples of a Journal would be The Chronicle of Higher Education or Teaching Exceptional Children. Most journals are uniquely identified by an 8 digit ISSN# (xxxx-xxxx). Journals are generally organized by volume, issue and page number(s). Some databases and aggregators (e.g. SAGE, ScienceDirect, PsycARTICLES) contain only peer-reviewed journals, but normally, this is not the case. So, once you have entered your keywords, always make sure to filter for either "scholarly" or "peer-reviewed" results if that is a requirement from your Professor. More on finding journals...

Illustration of an article Articles are contained within the journals and of course, there can be thousands of them. This is the bottom level that leads to the full text. The article level is what you see in the results page after you enter your keywords, but the Journal, Volume, Issue and Page Number(s) are always contained in the article’s abstract or citation. The DATABASE is normally indicated somewhere at the top of the page. All of this information is required in order to cite a journal article. More on finding articles...

Simply stated - this time from the bottom up: articles live in the journals, which live in the databases, which are accessible via an aggregator. Knowing the names and the components will help you keep your citations and your research organized.  


APA and DOI's

Important note regarding APA citations when citing online articles:  

APA style does not distinguish between articles accessed through a database and articles accessed via the Web. The exact citation formation will depend on whether the article has a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) available. 

  • In APA 7, the presentation of digital object identifiers (DOIs) and URLs has been standardized. Both are presented as hyperlinks; the label “DOI:” is no longer used, and the words “Retrieved from” are used only when a retrieval date is also needed.

Example - Journal Article with DOI:


Example - Journal Article without DOI:

 These samples are in the APA 7 Manual in Chapter 10 under Reference Examples. 


Electronic Reference / Credo Example:

Credo Reference is a subscription database available from the library website. The content in this database is not proprietary. This means that titles can be accessed using other platforms and/or in other formats. Since titles in Credo Reference are available to people in different ways, information about Credo Reference is not required in your reference.

Determine what type of source you are using in order to cite and reference titles found and accessed using Credo. Here are examples from the APA 7 Manual, p. 324, example 33.

Finding Abbreviations for Science Journal Titles

Tool useful for finding journal title abbreviations for CSE style