Boolean operators are named for English mathematician George Boole (1815 - 1864). Boolean operators are used to connect and define the relationship between the words in your search. The three operators most commonly used are:
||All keywords listed must be in the citation, abstract, or article
||nursing AND vaccine = both words present.
||Just one of the keywords needs to be in the citation, abstract, or article.
||dog OR canine = either the word dog or the word canine is present.
||The word following the NOT will be excluded.
||bee NOT spelling = insects but not the competitions
Keep in mind the operators AND / OR are completely opposite to how we use them in everyday language:
- AND normally suggests more (e.g. I can have cake AND ice cream). But in databases, AND is a limiter because this instructs the database to return only articles that contain BOTH words.
- OR normally means choosing one option over another (e.g. I can register as a democrat or a republican). The use of OR can greatly expand results because the database will return articles that contain ANY of the keywords.
There are symbols and punctuation that help further refine results:
- Putting keywords in quotes will tell the database to search for a phrase, this means the words will either be next to each other or within close proximity.
- Example: "marketing ethics" will look for these words in this order. If the quotes were not there, the database would treat these words as an AND, and look for articles that contain both of the words marketing and ethics anywhere in the article.
- For this reason, phrase searching is a great way to NARROW results if you are searching for a concept.
- Putting an asterisk (*) behind the root of the word will return all versions of that word.
- Example: global* will return results that contain the words: global, globally, globalization, globalize etc.
- For this reason, the use of the * (also known as truncation or proximity operator) is a great way to EXPAND results.
These operators work in many commercial search engines, websites and databases.
- You usually have to enter the operators in CAPS for them to be recognized
- Sometimes, databases and search engines (e.g. Google) have created a form for you to search using Boolean operators without having to type them in. This can usually be found in the Advanced Search page of the website.